This course covers the important interrelationship between the facial appearance, the vertical dimension, the arch width and the health of the TMJ. The importance of vertical dimension and/or inadequate arch width to TMJ problems, and how to improve facial esthetics will also be discussed. Other topics will include the seven keys to facial beauty and TMJ health, the cultural causes of malocclusion, eliminating gummy smiles without surgery and easy cephalometric analysis that correlates with the facial analysis.  Facial esthetics, vertical dimension and TMJ health will also be reviewed. Participants will learn how and why functional appliances work and how to use these appliances along with straight wire mechanics to achieve the best results.   The importance of timing when treating children, teens, and adults will be examined.